This close-up shows several cup-shaped apothecia, proof that this epiphyte is indeed a lichen (lichenized fungus) and not a moss.
(similar to the type of moss harvested in Europe by fine perfumists' to create exquisite oak moss essence.)es
Here are some of the historical uses of lichens: Mordant Dyes used to color wool in the Hebrides Islands (and still used today), Anti-fungal drugs are currently being derived from lichens and made into life saving drugs.
- Alcohol production (for fermentable carbohydrates, as catalysts, and/or as flavour/preservatives)
- Cosmetics (for hair, and/or sweet smelling powders)
- Perfumes (see Oakmoss)
- Decorations (including costumes and artwork)
- Fibre (clothing, housing, cooking, sanitation)
- Animal feed (both fodder and forage)
- Industrial purposes (production of acid, antibiotic, carbohydrate, litmus)
- Hunting/fishing (to find prey, or to lure them in)
- Insect repellent/insecticide
- Preservatives (for food or beer)
- Poison (arrowheads, wolves: see Letharia vulpina)
- Mummies (see Pseudevernia furfuracea)
- Magic .
- Hallucinogens (see Dictyonema)
- Sharnoff, Sylvia. "Lichens and People". Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d Richardson, D. H. S. 1974. Vanishing Lichens. Their History, Biology and Importance. 231 pp. HafnerPress, New York.
- Jump up^ Vartia, K.O. 1973. Antibiotics in lichens. pp. 547-561. In Ahmadjian, V, Hale, ME, eds. The Lichens. p. 548.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Emmerich, R., I. Giez, O. L. Lange, and P. Proksch. 1993. Toxicity and antifeedant activity of lichen compounds against the polyphagous herbivorous insect Spodoptera littoralis. Phytochemistry 33(6): 1389-1394.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Llano, G.A.P. 1944. Lichens: their biological and economic significance. The Botanical Review 10 (1): 1-65. Page 37.
- Jump up^ Baumann, B.B. 1960. The botanical aspects of ancient Egyptian embalming and burial. Econ. Bot. 14(1):84-104. Page 88